Global Financial Crisis:
Stock Market acts as a "Social Hypothalamus",
and how to fix the Boom-and-Bust Economy
has seen the worst global financial crisis since the Great Depression
of 75 years ago. Society has not been able to learn
that disastrous event, and so has repeated it. The
current crisis has even been labeled the Great Recession.
plenty of news coverage about the USA sub-prime mortgage loans that
sparked off the current collapse, no field of study has been
substantial explanation underlying this (or previous)
Most have just singled out the profit motive as the
with a new set of laws to understand human behaviour - the laws of pain
- Superpsychology can now explain in detail the nature of the
Global Financial Crisis and offer a potential
solution to prevent such crises in the future.
Before getting into the Global Financial Crisis proper the
laws of pain
to be briefly outlined.
The basics of Superpsychology's laws of pain
From superpsychology's laws
been established that suffering in the human species occurs on both an
and a social
The first law of pain:
For the individual, suffering occurs due to unresolved
psychoemotional pains (known as nervopains) that act to repress natural
(and replace them with acting out behaviours), create mental
blocks, and to also set to altered levels any of
a range of
(for example, heart rate, blood pressure, breathing depth and
rate, pupil size, blood flow to skin, voice pitch and timbre, and many
past psychoemotional pains (known as exfeeling) reverses this process.
It replaces acting
out behaviours with restored normal human qualities, dissolves mental
blocks (i.e., rewires the brain),
and resets psychophysiological parameters to
progressively more normal levels.
The second law of pain:
society, it is now known that the human species has developed
organism (or superorganism) and/or a superstructured brain (or
This means that society acts like a giant individual - and/or
brain - with
people behaving like the "cells" of that individual and/or
phenomenon has occurred due to the accumulation of social
psychoemotional pains during our species' evolution (from
disasters, wars, violence, disease, etc.). This has
the repression of natural species'
qualities (as seen in reduced body hair,
flatness of face, small teeth size, slight skin pigmentation,
encephalisation, etc.), and altered social psychophysiological
parameters (like pace of life, freedom, working
standards, living standards, governorship, law, equality,
impartiality, unprejudice, etc.). In
other words, society and its processes can be compared
to the individual (and/or brain) and its
processes. And the same rules of healing psychoemotional
suffering in the individual also applies to society - since it is
essentially a giant symbolic individual.
is also an element of intermixing between these two laws, in that
individuals can influence society and society can influence
from this author's own discoveries, these two laws have been built upon
over half a century of work in reexperiencing-based therapy, brain and
archaeology, anthropology, and global brain science. So they are
well-formed and workable laws.
An Overview of Boom-and-Bust Events
the advent of trade and a basic economy, from thousands of years ago,
human societies have endured various degrees of both economic upswings
even reference to an economic crisis in Ancient Rome.
the downswings are linked to natural disasters like floods or
droughts, sometimes they are linked to man-made attributes like greed
war. The stock market - as a centralised means of trading -
formed from the 1600s, in unison with an expanding European influence
during the Age of Imperialism. Its development
has enabled the study of economic trends. One
noticeable feature to arise has been the bubble-and-burst
- which has more lately become known as the boom-and-bust cycle.
Generally, economic bubbles come about when investors see an
opportunity to make a large profit in a short amount of time.
they pour their money into perceived promising business ventures.
This leads to
an overvaluing of those relevant stocks. And a burst occurs
realise that their returns are unlikely to match their
A group panic ensues where people try to get out
the venture by selling their stocks and shares before
they become worthless. Prior to the Twentieth
most notable economic bubble-and-bursts occurred during the
aforementioned Age of
Imperialism, when the major European nations
colonised new territories, setup remote trading posts, traded
goods, and had new markets to exploit. At that time
were all-powerful and had a hand in economic ventures, largely by
offering their backing in order to entice public investment.
The several bubble-and-bursts from that time include
the tulip mania of 1637 (thought
to have been backed
by Dutch government security), the Mississippi company of
1720 (heavily backed by the French government), and
the South Sea
(company) Bubble of 1720 (heavily backed by the British government).
Meanwhile, the (British) rail mania of 1825 occurred
overinvestment in emerging railway companies during the burgeoning
the Twentieth Century onwards, economic booms-and-busts have largely
tandem with the growth of the financial sector - involving wealthy
corporations, organisations, and individuals. As stocks and
boom, members of the financial sector devise schemes to make profits
from the soaring market wealth. This encompasses the creation
financial instruments and/or exploitation of existing financial factors
with which to gain advantage in the
market - or economy itself. Such instruments and factors have
creative accounting, program trading, portfolio investments, margin
debt, margin buying, and
financialisation. The Great Depression of 1929 was due to
overinvestment by mutual funds in technology companies. The
of 1987 was attributed to program trading, portfolio
investments, and derivatives, as well as the falling value
currency. It led to the introduction of the "trading curb"
(exchange shutdown) to try to stop panic selling. The booming
Asian Economic Miracle of the 1990s was followed by the 1997 Asian
Financial Crisis. This occurred due to crony capitalism
(capital flow channeled through
favoured people), real estate speculation, and exchange rate
volatility. The dot-com bust of 2000
to overinvestment in Internet companies, and the rise of venture
capital. The crash of 2002
was due to
accounting practices in some large companies that then went broke.
And the current crash
of 2008-9 was due to excessively
leveraged home-loans by finance companies.
Those are the basic facts of what
happened to bring about these financial crises. But we need
to know more
about the individual and social behaviours involved. For that
need to use the laws of
Superpsychology's explanation of the Global Financial Crisis
using the laws of pain:
The Stock Market behaves like a "Social
to the recent series of stock market crashes, society
has unfortunately become familiar with the boom-and-bust economic cycle. But
what society does not
know is why this socially
occurs and how we can stop it. The stock market (or
stock exchange) is a
system whereby traders can meet and trade stocks and shares.
trade in commodities of metals gives away its
roots in human evolution from around 5,000 years ago when
metal use was developing. Its trade in agricultural products
goes back further to around 10,000 years ago when farming was taking
in oil - a source of fuel for fire - has roots even further
back to about 1.5
million years ago when hominids first captured fire (and needed
a fuel source to keep it going). So trade
is a key
component of human species' development. Trade is
which technological and creative advances are implemented and
shared, thus fueling the growth of society, and increasing the pace of
we have seen in volatile economic times, the
stock market goes up or down depending on
investors' fears or confidence. It has two significant
a bear market
that reflects investor fears and uncertainty,
that reflects investor optimism and confidence.
Sometimes (but not always) aspects of these two states can
the economy at large (society) and are known as a recession or an
respectively. Then if these two states
deteriorate further they transform into a depression or a
This exemplifies how stock
market swings can expand into extreme economic
swings that can damage an
cause severe hardship for people. So it has become well
that the stock
market serves as a barometer
Not only does the stock market reflect social mood, but it
is also composed of a particular structure. The
stock exchange is the
central unit that interacts with the
primary market and the secondary market. The primary
market is the more active and direct market.
It is the
market for the first issue
stocks, shares, and bonds for the immediate raising of capital for
and infrastructure works. It is the market necessary to get
government and business
underway or to expand existing
businesses (this system raises debt-free finance).
So it is the market for direct action - to get things
done quickly. The secondary market, on the other hand, deals
with the sale of stocks
and shares between
investors and, so, is a less direct market. It is the
reserve, or more sedentary market that is
the provision of liquidity in
An active secondary
the economy fluid and, in short,
healthy. Once again, the current Global Financial Crisis of
due to "sub-prime"
mortgage loans - which means that they are below the primary market -
that is, part of the secondary
market - thus they have significantly
reduced liquidity in the economy.
comparison, when we look at the individual human we see in it the same
moods reflective of the stock market and economy - and similar
hypothalamus is the brain structure responsible
for reflecting the mood
of the individual, and it
interacts with the sympathetic and
parasympathetic nervous systems. The sympathetic nervous
is the active system that galvanises the organism for
It makes oxygen and nutrients available for
by the brain, senses, and muscles so that the organism can
take quick action. It is responsible for increasing
heart rate, raising body temperature, and perspiration. The
system, on the other hand, is the passive system that is
responsible for fluid control, like salivation, gastric juices
(digestion), bile, and urination - and it is also responsible for
recovery and healing (e.g., via the excretion of tears).
So from this overview, one can see that the hub of social
economic activity is reflective of the
hub of individual (and brain) activity.
How the Stock Market sets the Pace of Life, and Reflects
aspects of Suffering
To summarise the above, it can now be said that the
stock market reflects the mood of society via its "bear
market" (nervous, declining market) or "bull market"
(confident, upswinging market), just as the hypothalamus reflects the
mood of the individual via its two states
of "feeling low" or "feeling upbeat". So far, this
is quite normal
because life ebbs and flows, so it is natural for an individual or
society to feel low or upbeat
at times. But problems start to occur when these two states
This is where unresolved suffering plays an important role.
There are two main moods
of the suffering
individual. Suffering from psychoemotional
exacerbates sympathetic and/or parasympathetic nervous states.
these states harder and imparts on them stuck or fixed,
grosser attributes (embodied in habits, idiosyncrasies,
obsessions, compulsions, and phobias). The first is
individual, who can
any number of stuck attributes like hyperactivity, overworking, always
overconfident, a risk-taker, or a go-getter.
And the second is the parasympathetically-driven
individual, who can exhibit any number
sullenness, melancholia, depression, insular,
antisocial, or withdrawn. However, each prototype is
exclusive, and so some pain inevitably exists within
nervous system, which causes
occasional moderate mood swings from sympath-type to parasympath-type.
But the person who has a lot of pain
associated with both nervous systems is the manic-depressive.
They tend to be highly strung and, so, exhibit
mood swings from sympath-type to parasympath-type. As a
consequence they find it hard to function properly, as their life
becomes a series of "try-and-fail" struggles.
So now one
two prototypic moods of the suffering
- from sympath-type (manic) to parasympath-type (depressed) - are
reflected in the two prototypic moods of the
economy - booms (inflation) and
between the stock exchange and markets, and their individual
remains valid even when one looks at the two in detail.
primary market, in tandem with the stock exchange, is the up-or-down
of the economy, just as the sympathetic nervous system, in tandem with
hypothalamus, acts as an up-or-down regulator of the individual's
psychophysiology. (For example, the sympathetic nervous
system can raise body temperature
during an infection to help destroy a microbial invader.
Similarly, one of the main measures of economic
the primary market share indices -
the closing level of
which are often quoted on news reports - that is, how far
"up or down" they have
shifted from the previous episode of trading.) Secondly,
the stock market has
are described as "psychological barriers", which are significant
levels that the indices can break through - upwardly
downwardly during a recession. This is similar to
how individuals can
suffer from psychological barriers (or mental blocks) that can reflect
inner states of turmoil. Thirdly, the stock exchange's
market contains raw materials - most of which
are vital to
industry - such as oil and gas (fuels), oils, copper, steel, sugar,
coffee, meat (protein), cerials, etc., just as similar items
most of which are vital to cells and organs - are dissolved in the
blood of the individual, such as oxygen (a fuel), oils
copper, iron, sugar, caffeine, protein,
etc. Fourthly, the stock market has at least two safety
activities to avoid market troubles. They are known
"flight-to-liquidity" (traders shift from riskier investments to more
liquid ones - equivalent to fighting one's way out
and "flight-to-quality" (traders shift from
riskier investments to safer ones - equivalent to fleeing
just as the individual has two safety activities embodied in
reflex (to either fight or flee from trouble). And
fifthly, economic volatility sometimes necessitates the
shutting down of the stock exchange to prevent damage to the
economy, just as extreme stress can lead to the shutting down
of the hypothalamus to prevent damage to the
(which leads to repressed psychoemotional pain).
So, in detail then, we again see that the core of economic
activity reflects the core of individual activity.
During a boom-and-bust cycle, a boom can produce something like 15
growth, then a bust can take away something like 10 years of
Usually, the pace of life
quickened by a small
amount after recovery from such an event, and the
indices rise to higher levels than they were before it.
the stock market can alter and set social psychophysiological
parameters, like stock indices (and associated "psychological
barriers"), value of
money, and pace of life. It can also (more indirectly) alter
other parameters, like working standards, laws, degree of
and financial regulation (e.g., altered taxes, or
interest rates), etc.
put it simply, the stock exchange and primary and secondary markets act
like the individual's hypothalamus, sympathetic nervous system, and
nervous system respectively. The stock market can alter
parameters up or down - and even "fix" them as psychological
- according to the "growth" or "pain" in the economy, just as the
hypothalamus and associated nervous systems in the individual
can alter up or down psychophysiological parameters -
"fix" them according to growth stages or unresolved painful experiences
(producing mental blocks). In effect, the stock exchange and
associated market system is an
of the hypothalamus and Autonomic Nervous System - not necessarily in
terms of appearance, but in
exchange is a real-time monitor of a
variety of economic
parameters and is a highly stressful work environment, just as the
hypothalamus is a "stress organ" that monitors the levels of numerous
psychophysiological parameters in real time - according to the daily
experiences of the individual. Thus the stock exchange is the
superstructured equivalent of the hypothalamus. This
phenomenon further confirms the validity of the laws of pain -
that the human species is a
superstructured entity. And it adds to the list of social
- including parliament, model shows, sporting teams, and
society - that exhibit social brain structures. All
occurs because a
superstructured state is an outgrowth of accumulated and unresolved
The Dynamics of the Boom-and-Bust Economic Cycle
theories have been another target of criticism related to the
current Global Financial Crisis. They do provide good
that helps to manage the economy. But history shows
that they are unable to keep huge swings
in social mood under
control. So they are unable to stop
bedrock concept upon
which modern economic theory is based is that people make
decisions in the marketplace. Straightaway we see that this
view is not entirely true. Humans often do make
decisions, but they also often make decisions based on their
degree of psychoemotional suffering - decisions that are irrational.
For example, millions of
dollars are spent by people each year on goods that
are unhealthy (like fatty or sugary foods), that are
(like cigarettes and alcohol); that are based on a kind of "sympathetic
(like animal-derived pills, potions, and
tonics); that are
upon hope (like gambling); or that are based on vanity (like
implants, botox injections, and plastic surgery).
Business and financial people
themselves are also not always rational. A part of the
drive is to take
advantage of people's dependent needs and weakened psychologies - for
via the operation of casinos, by manufacturing cigarettes, by selling
gossip-focused publications, or by using sex in advertising to sell items.
history shows numerous examples of public officials - some of whom
fiscal policy - to not always be rational. Some of
public moneys into their
and supporters' pockets, grab land for themselves, grant contracts to
favoured businesspeople, take bribes, or in
other ways skew financial systems.
In short, a
portion of the economic market caters to addictions, superstitions,
beliefs, predilections, hopes and dreams, or corruption, and,
is partly driven by
it comes to the stock market itself, investing activity is led by
professionals who can often have an obsession with making money.
(In fact, most skilled professions have an element of
associated with them.)
who are obsessed with money are often driven
painful experiences from their upbringings, where they were in some way
deprived. This could involve things like their parent/s
going bust, receiving little pocket money, receiving few gifts, made to
work at a young age, or feeling that they were not valued.
When such people are suffering like this it causes their
reactions to become exaggerated from the norm. The trouble is
nervopain from the past gets triggered at both ends of market action.
When investors see a promising opportunity it triggers the nervopain
of deprivation in the past, which drives them to
overcompensate and buy too much into companies; conversely, when they
potential problems ahead, it causes
them to panic and overcompensate by selling too much of their shares.
So (at times) they
prone to overconfidence and become heavy buyers of stock, or overly
fearful and become heavy sellers of stock - in much the same
that pro gamblers
like to bet big and could either have heavy wins or heavy losses.
Other, medium and
smaller investors - who are suffering from various degrees of
that affects their own decision-making - follow the lead of the
professional players and the
overconfidence or fear cascades across the market.
If the overconfidence or fear is substantial
enough it can then cascade
across society, and in extreme cases spread on to other nations.
transforms into a boom or a bust - in short, a rough ride for the
Our species, therefore, has progressed to a point where it
is too highly strung and heavily traumatised (by past violence, wars,
terrorism, natural disasters, economic collapses, etc. -
causing hardship, death, the tearing apart
of families, and destruction of communities) and behaves like a
manic-depressive individual. The
lurches forward in a fit of mania to try to grow, find solutions,
try to reach some magical zenith. When it
reach that aimed for goal it plummets into
a recession, where it cannot find any reason or
for further growth. The repeating boom-and-bust cycle of the
and early Twenty-first Centuries clearly shows that the economy has
faltering. So economic growth guided
by economic theories - is
not smooth and efficient. This has occurred because a large
of what the
really striving for with all this growth is a cure for their
suffering in life. The human species is
towards a destination it can never get to, to alleviate problems it can
never properly identify (let alone resolve).
The Different Qualities of a Boom-and-Bust Cycle
Booming and contracting economies offer different experiences.
boom period is generally better for the well-off. People are
spending more and those who produce goods and services, or who
wealthy investments, can make more money. There is also the
opportunity to create wider schemes for making money.
For average people there are more work opportunities, and
money to spend on everyday items, luxury goods, and
holidays. But as a boom progresses society becomes
more pressured and restrictive. The cost of
living gradually rises. Commodities like oil become more
expensive, which limits travel.
The central bank needs to regularly raise interest
rates to try to slow the economy down, which makes mortgages more
The media tends to highlight people who make lots of
money. Celebrities wear expensive clothing and jewelery on
red carpet to show how good they have got it in life.
So as society steams ahead, more and more people can feel
they are falling behind. The best things about a boom are
that there is fuller employment, and greater opportunities for earning
recession - on the other hand - can be more relaxing compared
When a recession develops one feels the pressure of
fast-paced living ease. A recession generally is
average worker (who can maintain a job) since the prices of goods and
services fall. For example, the price of oil drops,
making travel more affordable.
To encourage people to spend more the central bank
rates, which makes mortgage repayments easier. The
government needs to
take less money from average workers, so may lower taxes, or in other
ways try to put more money into the people's hands.
And to show their own concerns, celebrities wear less
clothing and jewelery on the
carpet so as not to appear to flaunt excess in tough times.
But as a recession progresses life becomes
government may rack up a string of failed incentives aimed at
kickstarting economic growth. More and more
people lose their jobs. And the
media tends to highlight stories of hardship. The unfortunate
attributes of a recession are that money tends to lose value, and
more and spend
and so businesses and governments have to lay off workers, which causes
a boom and bust each have their own unique qualities - and
neither is "good"or "bad" - because different
types of enterprises do well in each economic mode. Yet
despite this, society despises recessions
and always wants to be growing in
boom period. Economic growth is seen as the
only way to improve people's lives. This
is a warped perspective that the human species has, and it is a
never-ending struggle to try to get "somewhere".
reality, natural systems have ups and downs. In humans,
slight swings in mood are perfectly natural
cannot be stopped altogether. Huge swings in mood,
however, are a product of
psychoemotional pain in the individual - and huge economic swings
are a product of unresolved social pain in the species.
How Superpsychology proposes to use the laws of pain to
heal Suffering in Society
theories for society have similarities to
psychological theories for the individual. Both theory types
adept at explaining surface activity,
such as mood swings from mania to
depression, good and bad experiences,
and calmness and serenity (ideals
that we all strive to achieve) They can fix many small
and the occasional larger ones. But because they do not deal
evolution, levels of consciousness, or brain structure, they cannot
penetrate beneath surface activity where there is a wealth of repressed
qualities waiting to be retrieved. So when it
comes to the serious
healing of deep-seated problems both theory types are
economic theory that does not take into account human suffering will
always ultimately fail to curb economic crises, because human
suffering is not only integral to
our evolution, it is also integral to all of our activities including
economic activity. In contrast, superpsychology's dual human
science recognises the
surface details, can penetrate to the deeper levels
of consciousness to
problems that underpin
the surface activity, and it can also retrieve and
restore repressed human
qualities - both on individual and social levels.
has provided us with our own in-built healing mechanism (of
When a painful experience from the past is
reexperienced, it reengages the hypothalamus, and the sympathetic
and parasympathetic nervous systems to process, integrate, and
that experience. This
rewires the brain, and resets certain psychophysiological parameters
back to more normal levels. Such a person is no
longer prone to magnified highs (overconfidence) or
lows (extreme fears). Their values also change to a broader
range of interests rather than obsessive single-minded ones.
was lost (or repressed) in us from about 3 million years ago,
have rarely used it since, and it is not
recognised or utilised in professional fields. Put
not fully process our
painful experiences - we repress them instead. And then we
unconsciously build brain-like structures - like the stock market /
social hypothalamus -
into society to try to "manage" our problems. An
accumulation of many
nervopains leads to chronic tension and pressure in the individual, and
many social pains
in the species produces chronic social tension and pressure
By not utilising this
natural stress-healing mechanism we are making life increasingly
In the same manner as the exfeeling individual processes nervopain, a society
exfeeling sentient people would be able to detect the falseness of a
boom period, or the reality of hurt and deprivation of a recession
period and take them back to sources of social pain in the past.
Once the associated social pain/s are resolved, previously
states like the speed of society would change. Society would
marginally, and become less pressured and stressful. It would
regain more of its
normal species' qualities, and its perception would
broaden. It would also gradually dissolve excessive rules and
regulations, and it would
stop sections of society from being obsessively focused on
time, resolving social pain would even out
the economy's performance so that it no longer would suffer from booms
and busts, just slight ups and downs.
In other words,
superpsychology can produce the changes needed in human nature to avoid
economic disasters, and make the economy more even performing.
order to resolve individual suffering, and lay down the foundations
for resolving social suffering - including the painful boom-and-bust
cycle - we need to implement the following:
First and foremost, we need
reduce the amount of psychoemotional pain in individuals.
This can be accomplished by a social-wide educational
At first only suffering people are likely to engage
in this type of healing activity.
But as time goes on average people will also likely engage in
healing to keep themselves healthy, their brains normally
and to eliminate acting out behaviours. A well implemented
program could significantly reduce suffering in individuals within just
few generations. Then, after most people
are engaged in psychoemotional healing, the healing of past
pains can begin and continue on into the future. (Social pain
can only be resolved at a
time, after most individuals have learnt how to resolve their own
- A social-wide educational program of showing people how
pain is resolved.
parents as to how to care properly for infants, children, and teens -
to reduce the incidents of painful and hurtful experiences being caused
entire human species needs to learn how to resolve psychoemotional
pain, reset psychophysiological parameters, replace acting out
behaviours with normal human qualities, and rewire the brain
back to normal - or for less affected people, to keep the brain from
Should a social-wide program of teaching
psychoemotional healing not be undertaken, the economy will continue to
suffer booms and busts, which will likely become frequent and damaging.
And political leaders, and their
economic advisers, will be powerless to stop them. The onus
to change human society will be palmed off to a future
organise (which they are unlikely to appreciate when the solution to
the problem was available earlier).
For aeons, the
public have looked to their social leaders - be they chiefs, queens,
kings, or politicians - for healing of their suffering.
And for an equal time social leaders have been
claiming that they are
going to heal some aspect of social suffering. Examples for
politicians include to end poverty (Herbert Hoover, USA), to win the
poverty (Lyndon B. Johnson, USA), to end child poverty by 1990 (Bob
Hawke, Aus), to win the war on drugs (Ronald Reagan, USA), to improve
healthcare and reduce hospital waiting lists (a common political
promise), and to close the gap between the rich and poor by sharing
wealth more equably (a common political theme).
Politicians have "fixed" some social problems - like civil
- but via the institution of laws, rules, and regulations,
not the same thing as naturally
exaggerated human behaviours. Most political promises related
healing social suffering have turned out to be empty ones.
political leaders of today are still making the same kinds of promises,
homeless off the streets (Kevin Rudd, Aus).
2008 election of the first African-American president of the
Barack Obama - brought with it great hope for
its people, and some were even brought to tears at the (two
But exactly what is this healing supposed to be for?
Is it the struggles of daily life, involving bills, taxes,
rents/mortgages? Is it the
Global Financial Crisis? Is it individual suffering?
Or is it a combination of all of these?
That is the trouble with psychoemotional suffering - it is
amorphous when there is no relevant knowledge to explain it.
difficult to identify exactly what one is
suffering from, and how to go about healing oneself from it.
That is precisely why we need - for the first time in human
history - a social-wide educational program
about this type of healing.
are policy formulators, legislators, and decision-makers.
They do not study healing or
practise treatment methods. So they are unable to perform any
direct healing of suffering - especially when they have no new
tools available to do so.
Superpsychology's dual science of human nature now provides those
essential tools. A
social educational program would best be provided with the
assistance of government backing.
So the question now becomes, which political leader/s will be
society on to the next stage of its evolution: the (re)learning of how
to resolve psychoemotional pain - and make real, effective changes,
rather than just empty promises. The future of a healthy
human species awaits a forthright decision in this area ...
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