Now that the
Because superstructures repeat themselves throughout nature--in similar fashion to a hologram--we can deduce that the entire universe is also essentially a superatom--a giant representation of an atom, or an atom turned inside-out (though the Universe does not necessarily have to look this way). This phenomenon is known as the Universal Superatomic Law. This third Law of Pain can now tell us a good deal about the Universe and the structures within it:
The universe is often depicted as a balloon-like entity with matter and space being equivalent to its stretching skin;
space is composed of a bubble-like foam (large dark voids surrounded by the visible matter of stars and galaxies);
the Milky Way Galaxy has a "sphere of influence" containing clouds of gas that fuel the galaxy's stars;
planetary nebula and supernova are dying stars that develop bubble-like nebula as they shed their gaseous material;
the Solar System is surrounded by the heliosphere, which is a gravitational bubble created by the sun's fast stellar wind and magnetic field as they meet the interstellar medium;
planets are like miniature solar systems as they have their own gravitational spheres of influence and orbiting satellite/s;
human society's economic activity is described as the bubble economy (it inflates as a result of investor confidence, and deflates according to their fears);
the brain's structure may include bubbles, since on occasion some people describe their experiences as like "living in a bubble";
the cell is a spherical entity that has a nucleous and surrounding cytoplasm; and the atom is composed of a nucleous surrounded by shells of orbiting electrons.
Reports in popular science and astronomy magazines during the 1990's have provided evidence upon which the third law of pain is based. Photographs taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in particular have contributed much information to the understanding of the universe:
The following images were taken by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory of the spread of elements contained within the Cassiopeia Supernova remnant. The supernova is a massive nebula (or nova) composed of gas and dust ejected by the exploded star Cassiopeia A. Chandra took a different x-ray image each for the elements calcium, silicon, and iron. The distribution of the elements suggest that the star has turned itself inside-out--as would be expected from the superstructured model of the universe. This is how the Chandra scientists describe it:
"The calcium image is similar to the silicon image, but less bright and clumpier. The iron image shows significant differences from other images. Since iron is the heaviest element shown, these maps support the suggestion that the layers of the star were overturned either before or during the explosion."
The first link below shows the different Cassiopeia Supernova remnant images; the second link shows the elements in different colours in the one image--note the position of the iron material (which originates from the core of the star) at the outer edge of the supernova.
Elemental Image of Exploded Star
Chandra Maps Vital Elements in Supernova
Over the last several hundred years, a number of scientists have perceived cosmic phenomena as living systems. Leonardo da Vinci--writing in his Codex Leicester--described the Earth in terms of a living organism with its rivers akin to veins. Russian geochemist Vladimir Vernadsky believed that the Earth was a self-contained biosphere (life enmeshed with geology), and that life was a feature of the cosmos itself. More recently, James Lovelock and Lynn Margulis developed the Gaia Hypothesis: that the Earth is a living system with biochemical checks and balances that keep it in a state of equilibrium.
Previous models of stellar birth stated that stars are born out of gas and dust cloud nurseries. The several hundred nursery stars are born in clusters with about 60 percent occurring in pairs. This suggested that planetary systems - and, therefore, life - would not be common in such intense gravitational environments. But a new analysis has found that these older Milky Way studies applied to bright, large stars like our sun that only live up to about 10 billion years - which are not the most common variety.
A more recent astronomical survey has concentrated on the smaller, dimmer red dwarfs that make up about 85 percent of stars in the Milky Way. These stars can live for up to a trillion years, and it was found that three-quarters of them are single. This suggests that most stars are born single and not in pairs. Most importantly, it suggests that planetary systems - and, therefore, life - could be more prevalent in our galaxy than previously believed.
Maggie McKee, 'Milky Way brims with singleton stars', NewScientist.com news
service, (online), 11:51 27 January 2006, (accessed 30 Jan 2006),
One of the stumbling blocks to achieving a Theory of Everything has been the inability to reconcile the two different systems of atomic states (quantum physics) and stellar states (general relativity). Although the two states are similar in structure - by having a centre with orbiting objects - electron orbits are explained by quantization (they are determined by particular energy levels); while planetary orbits are determined by motion and gravitational forces.
However, a peculiarity of planetary orbits was elucidated in 1766 with the Titius-Bode law. This was an arbitrary mathematical rule that successfully described the known planetary orbits (out to Uranus) - except for the gap between Mars and Neptune. The rule was then used as a guide to look for objects that should have occupied certain orbits. And, so, the objects Ceres and Pallas were found between Mars and Neptune; and the planets Neptune and Pluto were also located. The problems with the rule have included the missing planet in the Mars-Neptune gap, Neptune's position being out by 23 percent, and Pluto being only halfway out from the sun than the rule predicted for a ninth planet. Although revived and reworked every now and then, the law has not been taken seriously by astronomers because it has had no solid physics behind it.
But now, Dr Fabio Scardigli believes that both atomic and planetary systems follow the same underlying physics when the different masses of planets are accounted for. (He believes that both the solar system and the universe are giant atoms.) And, so, he has established a new mathematical equation that successfully describes the planetary orbits, and reconciles quantum physics with planetary physics. In effect, his mathematical law applies quantization to the larger planetary scale, just as it is applied to the smaller atomic scale.
A further stellar curiosity was identified by William Tift several
ago - that has picked up later supporters. It is the observation that
unrelated galaxies nearby
to Earth seem to be positioned at prescribed distances (calculated by
red-shifts, but minus extraneous red-shift movements) no matter in what
lie from us. This suggests that quantization may exist at the galactic
quantization were proven to be true at the planetary and galactic
would be a significant breakthrough in establishing the elusive Theory
Everything. (And it would also provide scientific evidence that would
support superpsychology's superstructuring theory of the Cosmos.)
Kulvinder Singh Chadha and Stuart Clark, "Planet Code Cracked: Is the Solar System a giant Atom?"
Astronomy Now, Pole Star Publications Ltd., vol. 20 no. 2, February 2006, p. 27-30
In September 2006, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) voted
the characteristics that define a planet. As a result, the smaller solar system objects - like
Pluto and Xena - were classified as dwarf
planets and not fully-fledged planets like the main bodies. So the
Union reduced the number of planets from nine to eight. But could this
decision - combined with superpsychology's superstructured theory of the universe - inadvertently help to explain the occurrence of life in
our solar system?
When superpsychology was being developed in the 1990s, the
superstructuring phenomenon - that solar system structure is reflective
atomic structure - naturally led to questions as to whether it could
life has developed in our solar system. Since life is dependent upon
oxygen - either in water or in the atmosphere - it
was thought that maybe the solar system was an "oxygen
superatom". But when it was realised that the oxygen atom has eight
electrons, while the solar system has a non-matching nine orbiting
concept was dropped. However, since the IAU's decision reduces the
planets to eight - now matching the number of oxygen atom electrons -
concept can be revived. So, in essence, the concept is that by having
the same basic structure as an oxygen atom, the solar system will possess
some similar traits to that atom. This
"resonance" between the
oxygen atom and its superstructured stellar counterpart may predispose
solar system to "draw out" an abundance of oxygen atoms on at least one
planet. Such a planet's
position relative to the sun would need to be not too
close and hot to negate the possibility of surface water and ice, nor
too far out and cold to
prevent atoms from being freed from ice.
Its position would need to facilitate icy poles that may help to
temperature, and surface water where chemical processes can occur and
aquatic life to form. Some of those life-forms could then produce
oxygen gas to
create a breathable atmosphere necessary for life to flourish on land.
In addition to the above, if this oxygen superatom phenomenon is true, then it
could help to fine tune the search for extraterrestrial planets that
may harbour life. The target range would be significantly reduced if
had to isolate stars with eight orbiting planets. In such systems,
one satisfactorily-positioned planet may be predisposed to being
oxygen-rich and able to support life.
Agençe France-Presse, " The planet formerly known as Pluto ...", ABC News in
Science, (online), Thursday, 14 September 2006, (accessed 22 Dec 2006),
"Planet community in a spin", ABC News in Science, (online), Friday, 25 August 2006, (accessed 22 Dec 2006),
Astronomers have come up with a new theory of the cosmos based on bubbles.
Last updated Oct 2007.
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